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Sample Visual-Meta

This is what Visual-Meta looks like. Please note, font and size does not matter. The formatting has been co-designed with Jacob Hazelgrove and Jakob Voß at and is based on Oren Patashnik’s and Leslie Lamport’s  BibTeX formatting style:

author = {Hegland, Frode},
title = {Visual-Meta: An Approach to Surfacing Metadata},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2Nd International Workshop on Human Factors in Hypertext}, series = {HUMAN '19},
year = {2019},
isbn = {978-1-4503-6899-5},
location = {Hof, Germany},
pages = {31--33},
numpages = {3},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/3345509.3349281},
acmid = {3349281},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {archiving, bibtex citing, citations, engelbart, future, glossary, hypertext, meta,
metadata, ohs, pdf, rfc, text}, }


Visual-Meta is identified to the reading software by the ‘@{visual-meta-start}’ start tag and the ‘@{visual-meta-end}’ tag which surrounds the code.


Citation & Addressing Information

Citation and Addressing information for citing the document is the usual citation information (author, title, etc., as shown above) and will have scope to be augmented with high resolution linking (Wilde & Baschnagel, 2005) to web pages, blogs in particular and in-PDF sections and robust multi-addressing. This is ongoing work which can strengthen the peer-to-peer connectivity document (rather than server or location) addressability can offer (Wiil, Bouvin, Larsen, De Roure, Thompson, 2004).

Formatting Information

The formatting specification is implemented as custom fields, which can include anything the authoring software can describe, for extraction into interactive systems. Please also look at the JSON Extension.

General Formatting

formatting = { heading level 1 = {Helvetica, 22pt, bold}, heading level 2 = {Helvetica, 18, bold}, body = {Times, 12pt}, image captions = {‘Times, l4, italic, align centre} },

Citation Formatting, to allow reader application to display citations in any style:

citations = { inline = {superscript number}, section name = {References}, section format = {author last name, author first name, title, date, place, publisher} },

Glossary, to allow reader application to see any use glossary terms for Augmented Glossary functionality:

glossary = {section = 'Glossary' term = bold definition = non-bold } }


The ‘version’ field is the version of Visible-Meta, the ‘generator’ is what added the Visual-Meta to the document and the ‘source’ is where the data comes from, to be used if appended to a legacy document:

visible-meta = { version = {1.1}, generator = {Liquid | Author 4.6}, source = {Scholarcy, 2019,08,01} }


Please note, the ‘@{visual-meta-end}’ is crucial to have as the last element in the document since it is recommended to parse the document in reverse and have the software look for this element to confirm that visual-meta is present.